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“Hay retos para los gobiernos, pero también para la sociedad”, Yvette Aguilar

A pocos meses de inaugurar la conferencia sobre Cambio Climático en Copenhague, Dinamarca, los acuerdos y reuniones bilaterales para tomar posiciones sobre qué conviene o no a la región en cuanto a cambio climático se empiezan a poner cada vez más interesantes.

Para  la conferencia sobre cambio climático se rescatarán puntos transcendentales para la región en los cuales se incluyen acuerdos importantes obtenidos en encuentros previos entres los diferentes gobiernos. Entre ellos están los cinco componentes de acción de Bali. Éstos tratan sobre las metas de reducción de emisiones de gases.

Los Componentes de Acción de Bali son: Mitigación, Adaptación, Tecnología y Financiamiento. Todos ellos se unen y complementan para solucionar el problema que hay entre los países desarrollados y los que están en vías de desarrollo.

Componente de Mitigación: éste mira las causas que han generado el problema. Preguntándose cuándo deberían los países desarrollados comenzar a reducir la emisión de gases,  si es conveniente que los países subdesarrollados se comprometan en los procesos de reducción de gases; pues se ven en una clara desventaja con sus contrapartes, los países desarrollados.

Componente de Adaptación. Aquí se plantean los efectos del problema de emisión de gases. En este componente se estudian las estrategias y medidas de adaptación para la reducción de emisiones. Uno de los objetivos acá es estudiar cómo prevenir o minimizar los efectos adversos en distintos sistemas como la salud humana, la economía, la ecología, la energía, etc.

Componente de Tecnología. Según el documento presentado, “El fortalecimiento de la adaptación y mitigación bajo la Convención demanda apoyo a la innovación, desarrollo, difusión y transferencia de tecnología apropiada a los contextos nacionales”.   Para este componente, la tecnología tiene que estar aliada a mitigación y enseñanza para la reducción de emisión. En él, se estudia quién paga esta tecnología necesaria en los diferentes países, los derechos de propiedad intelectual de todos los cambios que se vayan dando, la creación de centros de innovación tecnológica en las regiones para la adaptación y mitigación, los efectos adversos de ciertas tecnologías (por ejemplo los transgénicos).

Componente de Financiamiento.  “La Convención en su artículo 4.3 estipula que las partes países desarrollados proporcionarán recursos financieros nuevos y adicionales para cubrir la totalidad de los gastos convenidos que efectúen las partes países en desarrollo para satisfacer la totalidad de los gastos adicionales convenidos resultantes de la aplicación de las medidas de mitigación y adaptación por parte de los países en desarrollo”. En este componente, además se estudia quiénes son los países que tienen que proporcionar los recursos, cómo harán para proporcionarlo, los criterios para priorizar el financiamiento, etc.

Para Yvette Aguilar, responsable de planificación y asuntos estratégicos del Ministerios de Medios Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, este componente de Financiamiento es el que está más atrasado, pues “los países desarrollados no se ponen de acuerdo en cuál será la forma en que se gestionará el financiamiento ni de dónde saldrán los fondos para financiar a los países en desarrollo”.  

Además de los cinco Componentes de Acción de Bali, se encuentra el compromiso de reducción de emisiones de los países desarrollados, el cual implica comenzar a disminuir los gases de invernadero que éstos generan, aspecto que está firmado en una enmienda del Protocolo de Kioto.

“Para esta conferencia –la de Copenhague- hay muchos retos tanto para los gobiernos como para las sociedades, pues de ellas depende pedir cuentas a los gobiernos sobre las enmiendas establecidas en Copenhague, incidir en la reducción, vigilar que se esté cumpliendo lo establecido y dar seguimiento  a las posiciones que tomen sus respectivos gobiernos en cuanto la adaptación y reducción de gases”, afirmó la funcionaria.
 
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